CacheControl’s support of ETags is slightly different than httplib2. In httplib2, an ETag is considered when using a cached response when the cache is considered stale. When a cached response is expired and it has an ETag header, httplib2 issues the next request with the appropriate If-None-Match header. We’ll call this behavior a Time Priority cache as the ETag support only takes effect when the time has expired.
In CacheControl the default behavior when an ETag is sent by the server is to cache the response. We’ll refer to this pattern as a Equal Priority cache as the decision to cache is either time base or due to the presense of an ETag.
The spec is not explicit what takes priority when caching with both ETags and time based headers. Therefore, CacheControl supports the different mechanisms via configuration where possible.
Turning Off Equal Priority Caching#
The danger in Equal Priority Caching is that a server that returns ETag headers for every request may fill up your cache. You can disable Equal Priority Caching and utilize a Time Priority algorithm like httplib2.
import requests from cachecontrol import CacheControl sess = CacheControl(requests.Session(), cache_etags=False)
This will only utilize ETags when they exist within the context of time based caching headers. If a response has time base caching headers that are valid along with an ETag, we will still attempt to handle a 304 Not Modified even though the cached value as expired. Here is a simple example.
# Server response GET /foo.html Date: Tue, 26 Nov 2013 00:50:49 GMT Cache-Control: max-age=3000 ETag: JAsUYM8K
On a subsequent request, if the cache has expired, the next request will still include the If-None-Match header. The cached response will remain in the cache awaiting the response.
# Client request GET /foo.html If-None-Match: JAsUYM8K
If the server returns a 304 Not Modified, it will use the stale cached value, updating the headers from the most recent request.
# Server response GET /foo.html Date: Tue, 26 Nov 2013 01:30:19 GMT Cache-Control: max-age=3000 ETag: JAsUYM8K
If the server returns a 200 OK, the cache will be updated accordingly.
Equal Priority Caching Benefits#
The benefits of equal priority caching is that you have two orthogonal means of introducing a cache. The time based cache provides an effective way to reduce the load on requests that can be eventually consistent. Static resource are a great example of when time based caching is effective.
The ETag based cache is effective for working with documents that are larger and/or need to be correct immediately after changes. For example, if you exported some data from a large database, the file could be 10 GBs. Being able to send an ETag with this sort of request an know the version you have locally is valid saves a ton of bandwidth and time.
Likewise, if you have a resource that you want to update, you can be confident there will not be a lost update because you have local version that is stale.
Endpoint Specific Caching#
It should be pointed out that there are times when an endpoint is specifically tailored for different caching techniques. If you have a RESTful service, there might be endpoints that are specifically meant to be cached via time based caching techniques where as other endpoints should focus on using ETags. In this situation it is recommended that you use the CacheControlAdapter directly.
import requests from cachecontrol import CacheControlAdapter from cachecontrol.caches import RedisCache # using django for an idea on where you might get a # username/password. from django.conf import settings # a function to return a redis connection all the instances of the # app may use. this allows updates to the API (ie PUT) to invalidate # the cache for other users. from myapp.db import redis_connection # create our session client = sess.Session(auth=(settings.user, settings.password)) # we have a gettext like endpoint. this doesn't get updated very # often so a time based cache is a helpful way to reduce many small # requests. client.mount('http://myapi.foo.com/gettext/', CacheControlAdapter(cache_etags=False)) # here we have user profile endpoint that lets us update information # about users. we need this to be consistent immediately after a user # updates some information because another node might handle the # request. It uses the global redis cache to coordinate the cache and # uses the equal priority caching to be sure etags are used by default. redis_cache = RedisCache(redis_connection()) client.mount('http://myapi.foo.com/user_profiles/', CacheControlAdapter(cache=redis_cache))
Hopefully this more indepth example reveals how to configure a requests.Session to better utilize ETag based caching vs. Time Priority Caching.